THE CIVILIZATIONS OF AFRICA
Uncivilized Ancient Africa?
These racist propagandists also based their arguments, however, fallibly, on the observable fact that there are no traces, whatsoever, of any great civilization in sub-Saharan Africa.
This new crop of racist writers will gleefully rant endlessly about the megalithic remains of prehistoric Eurasia, then about the so-called Bronze and Iron Ages of both Europe and Asia before they will then laud the alleged unparalleled civilizational attainments of the Europeans – notably the Greeks and the Romans – to the skies. And all this while, they will be reminding us that, the African was nothing but a hunter-gather sub-human hominid roaming about the Sahara, Kalahari and the Great Lakes.
The fallibility of this kind of argument lies in the fact that a lack of physical evidence is never enough to prove the none-existence of a culture or civilization. The conventional craze of defining cultural and civilizational achievements within the limits of physical parameters should be rightly attributed to the materialistic methodology of the researchers and anthropologists of Western civilization itself. Because Western civilization is a materialistic civilization everything else is measured with the yardstick of materialism.
The Spiritual Civilizations of Africa
What the Westerner has failed to notice is that human culture and civilization can come in any form including the Spiritual. A spiritually-inclined civilization will pay no attention to the erection of materialistic and physical edifices that can last for millennia.
Africans have always been spiritualists. To this very day, and even in the centers of the materialistic civilization of the West like in Europe and North America, Africans have remained a deeply spiritually-minded people who have on the whole found it difficult to adjust to the materialistic mien of the West.
In the past Africans have established spiritual civilizations concerned mainly with the building of the mental and spiritual faculties of mankind. They established great spiritual edifices in the realms of Metaphysics. It was the spiritual civilizations of the Black African Negroes that, during the era of the Black World Order, invented Religion, Philosophy, Music, and many other such metaphysical edifies.
Yes it was Black African Negroes who invented Religion, Philosophy and Music.
The advent of the material civilization of the White man contributed nothing but destruction to Religion, Philosophy, Music, Meditation, Morality, Telepathy, and many other such ‘metaphysical buildings’ that the Black Africans have erected on the plains of the spiritual world.
While the material buildings of skyscrapers disfiguring the skylines of major Western capitals today can hardly last for half a millennium on their own without crumbling down, the spiritual buildings of Religion, Philosophy, Music and others established by the Black African Negroes have withstood the march of time for millions of years hitherto.
The Material Civilizations of Africa
Our emphasis on the spiritual and metaphysical civilizations of the Black African Negroes should not preclude the fact that Black African Negroes did not established material civilizations also. The Bible told us that the first skyscraper ever erected by mankind was built by a Black African Negro called Nimrod. Check out the Genesis 10: 1-20 genealogy of Nimrod for yourself and you will see the Bible, in very categorical terms, saying that Nimrod was a Black Negro.
Dr. Etiese Abasika wrote that, “It was Nimrod, also a black man, called ‘The Mighty Hunter’ (Gen. 10:8), who built the Tower of Babel, for the unity of humanity which was destroyed by God.”
For those who would only listen to the voice of Science we would point out the fact that Africa is the oldest continent on this planet earth. That if any material civilization by Black African Negroes have ever established any physical structures and buildings greater than those of our current Western civilization, the possibility of a consuming cataclysmic disaster is always there to explain away the lack of any physical remains of such a mighty material civilization of Africa in the past. If just a couple of demolition bombs can reduce the twin towers of the World Trade Center to rubbles in just a matter of minutes then imagine what a series of geophysical cataclysms can wrought in several millennia on the gigantic pyramids, megaliths and towers of Babels that must have once clustered the African continent from coast to coast.
We shouldn’t forget the fact that the scientists have convincingly proven that the Sahara desert was once the headquarters of an ancient civilization that built pyramids and erected colossal temples to Amon. Yet today no physical traces whatsoever can be found of the remains of the pyramids and temples built by the Black African Negroes who established the material civilization of Mesaharasia. If the relatively mild forces of desertification can eliminate all traces of material civilization from the Sahara what more should be expected of the gargantuan geophysical cataclysms that once wrecked the African continent from coast to coast rather than a total elimination of all physical traces any material civilization that must have once existed in Africa.
In ancient times Africa was known as Ethiopia. In those ancient times Ethiopia, that is Africa, was the greatest superpower in the world; in fact the entire world was ruled by Ethiopia or Africa in those days. To this very day ancient mythologies still testify to the global sovereignty of Africa or Ethiopia in those ancient days. The Ebony Editors wrote: “Although literally erased from historical accounts in current literature, ancient Ethiopia was accorded much deference and admiration by Herodotus, Diodorus and Homer, who described it as a place of revel for the gods.”
Dr. Motsoko Pheko wrote, “Historical evidence reveals that Africa had its renaissance centuries, if not millenniums, before Europe. Some of Africa’s past civilisations were in the Nile, Zimbabwe, Congo and Ghana. It was the trans-Atlantic slave trade and colonialism which destroyed Africa and underdeveloped it. In his book How Europe underdeveloped Africa, Dr Walter Rodney gives a vivid picture of this African tragedy.”
The Empires of West Africa
“During the good times of the not so ancient Empires, Black Africa was a peaceful entity. No national movement, no demands for self-government, judiciously refined traditional frameworks, an attentive paternalism…” – Aimé Cesaire
Some Afrocentric writers tried to drum theses answers down the unwilling ears of the racist writers from Europe and North America who were going about showcasing their ignorance by claiming that the lack of any physical trace of a material civilization is a proof to their claim that the Black African Negro have never invented or established a civilization.
These Afrocentric writers were not just content with the fact that the racists have admitted to the greatness of the African empires and kingdoms, including Ghana, Mali, Songhay, Dahomey, Nupe, Oyo, Benin, and Bornu, that flourished in Africa during the European medieval period. These latter empires and kingdoms were nothing in contrast to the super-civilizations that once flourished in Africa in the era of Prehistory which is just the last milestones on the lengthy annals of the Black World Order.
And, in fact, it was these latter empires that the European came and savagely demolished through the instruments of the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and Colonialism. Dr. Motsoko Pheko wrote in that regard that “Slavery and colonialism were made possible by the so-called European Renaissance. The authors of this renaissance used the compass and gunpowder. These Chinese inventions for peaceful purposes were used by Europeans to steal the land and wealth of Africans.”
Anyway, by the end of the nineteenth century the scientific world was by and large agreed that the beginning of mankind was indeed Black, African and Negroid.
TWENTIETH CENTURY AFROCENRISM
Twentieth Century Afrocentrism
The Wikipedia free online encyclopedia wrote that “Despite the controversy often associated with it, Afrocentrism is a critical historiographical approach to history, based on a weltanschauung which is fundamentally and radically different from that of many of their relatively recent, Eurocentric predecessors; but which harkens back to an earlier view of the history of world civilizations. It is the examination and analysis of existing scholarship, as well as the study of the original historical record itself, grounded in scholarly inquiry and rigorous research.”
By the beginning of the twentieth century so scientifically established was the fact that the ancients were Black African Negroes that Afrocentric writers were no more spending their time trying to prove the veracity of that fact.
By the beginning of the twentieth century Afrocentric writers were instead embarked on a more elaborate assignment, they were garnering evidences from all available sources in confirmation of the fact that Western Civilization derives its roots from Black Negro Africa.
Regarding Afrocentrism in the twentieth century the Wikipedia Free online encyclopedia wrote, “The origins of Afrocentrism can be found in the work of African-American and Caribbean intellectuals early in the twentieth century. Publications such as The Crisis and the Journal of Negro History sought to counter the prevailing view in the West that Africa had contributed nothing of value to human history that was not the result of incursions by Europeans and Arabs. These journals asserted the fundamental blackness of ancient Egypt and investigated the history of black Africa. Editor of The Crisis W.E.B. DuBois researched West Africa culture and attempted to construct a pan-Africanist value system based on West African traditions.”
It was around that time that Professor W.E. Du Bois wrote his The World and Africa in which he tried to systematically prove that the Renaissance was a sociocultural revolution that originated in Africa before it reached and engulfed Europe.
Professor Manthia Diawara wrote of “W.E.B. Du Bois’ The World and Africa, which refutes the racist thesis primarily associated with Eurocentric historians that of all the continents, Africa had made no contribution to world history and civilization. Du Bois’s main objectives in this celebratory book, as in his classic Souls of Black Folk, were threefold: to write the history and culture of the people of Africa and African descent; to enable African Americans to identify with Africa as a proud and dignified source of identity that could be placed on an equal footing with Europe, Asia, and North America; and to posit Africa’s humanism and rich heritage as a compelling argument against racism and colonialism. Du Bois believed that freedom was whole and indivisible, that Black people in America would not be completely free until Africa was liberated and emancipated in modernity; his Pan-Africanism was born out of the consciousness of freedom as a common goal for Black and Brown people.”
Another interesting aspect to the story of Afrocentrism is the fact that other scholars who are neither African Americans nor Native African began to actively contribute their own quotas to the rapid growth of the Afrocentric genre. Paradoxically enough majority of these impartial scholars were White peoples. Dr. Wilson J. Moses, a renowned historian, wrote “Despite the fulminations of ethno-chauvinists and other prejudiced persons, it remains a fact that the contributions of white scholars, like Boas, Malinowski, and Herskovits, were fundamental tot hat complex of ideas that we designate to days as Afrocentrism.
“Students of African and African American history have long appreciated the irony that much of what we now call Afrocentrism was developed during the 1930s by the Jewish American scholar Melville Herskovits. It is impossible to deny Herskovits’s influence on such universally regarded scholars as August Meier, Roger Abraham. Sterling Stuckey, and Robert Ferris Thompson.”
At that same time at the beginning of the twentieth century other Afrocentric workers were busy unraveling the African roots of Greek civilization itself.
The Wikipedia free online encyclopedia wrote that, “James’ book, Stolen Legacy (1954) is often cited as one of the foundational texts of Afrocentrism. James claimed that Greek philosophy was ‘stolen’ from ancient Egyptian traditions and that these had developed from distinctively African cultural roots. For James, the works of Aristotle and other Greek thinkers were, in fact, poor synopses of aspects of ancient Egyptian wisdom. According to James, the Greeks were a violent and quarrelsome people, unlike the Egyptians, and were not naturally capable of philosophy. This conclusion may have been based on the fact that the period of Egyptian history regarded as the most prominent (14th B.C.E.) was considered the early dark age of Greek culture. The early sculptural and artistic achievements of pre-classical Greece had strong similarity to Egyptian sculptural style and artistic design.”
It was quite exhilarating that more and more of such Afrocentric workers claim, with an air of scientific scholarship, that Hellenism and the Greek civilization were in fact originally Black, African and Negroid – the Whiteness in Hellenism and Greece were the terminal garb assumed by Greece just before it gave way to the rise of Rome at the beginning of Antiquity.
The whole of the southern half of Europe, we were told, was tropical, Black, Negroid and African just before the advent of the era of History. This was so because throughout the era of Prehistory, the European landmass was literally abutting the African content and there was little if any Mediterranean sea.
The Wikipedia free online encyclopedia wrote: “These ideas were not wholly new. 18th-century Masonic texts referenced ancient writings that claimed Greek philosophers had studied in Egypt. The poet William Blake had also attacked ‘the stolen and perverted writings of Homer and Ovid, of Plato and Cicero,’ asserting that they were copies of more ancient Semitic texts. Such views were associated with radical and Romantic thought that rejected classical Greco-Roman culture as the model for civilization. James’ distinct contribution was to tie these claims to an opposition between white European and black African identity, associating these alleged ancient appropriations of black wisdom with white, imperialist exploitation of black peoples and the theft of artifacts from black African cultures. By claiming that the Greeks were barbaric and innately incapable of philosophy, he inverted normative imperialist racial hierarchies, which made the same claims about black Africans.”
A painstaking re-examination of the Greek and Roman epics readily provided a trove of evidences that Homer, Virgil and many other classical writers were in fact Black African Negroes. The truth is that both Philosophy and the Philosophers predated the rise of Greece or the whole of Europe as a civilization.
Molefi Kete Asante wrote, in this regard, that, “Not only is the word philosophy not Greek, the practice of philosophy existed long before the Greeks.”
Furthermore, as William Black pointed out long ago, the geographical setting of the mythological and classical epics of both the Greeks and the Romans were actually Black Negro Africa.
The same thing was discovered in the case of the so-called Greek philosophers. With the exception of the most latter philosophers virtually all the philosophers that have been traditionally held to be Greeks were in fact Black African Negroes.
Starting with the Ionians, headed by Thales, and the Sophists, headed by Pythagoras, and down to philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, Socrates and many others; the research findings are gradually accumulating in substantiation of the fact that these so-called Greek philosophers were actually Black African Negro priests and gods adopted as national or local heroes by Greeks in ancient times. Even Western scholarship has always admitted that most of what is known about these so-called Greek philosophers was actually speculations and historical reconstructions by people who might, after all, have been revisionist Greek nationalists.
The Wikipedia free online encyclopedia wrote “Other authors have adapted James’ assertion that Egyptian culture’s influence on the Greeks has been underestimated. Among such scholars, the most influential is Martin Bernal, whose book Black stressed influence of Afro-Asiatic and Semitic civilizations on Classical Greece.”
The Afrocentric genre had on its side, even in the twentieth century, Science as a good old faithful sponsor. Unfortunately for the racist intellectuals of Europe and North America, Science is an authority that they themselves have placed on the pedestals of the God – nobody can challenge the dicta of Science. Fortunately for the Afrocentric genre it has merited the position of the right hand side of Science – nobody dare challenge Afrocentrism without inviting the wrath of Science upon himself.
The Wikipedia Free online encyclopedia wrote “DuBois later envisioned and received funding from then Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah to produce an Encyclopedia Africana that would chronicle the history and cultures of black Africa, but he died before the work could be completed. Some aspects of DuBois’s approach are evident in the work of Cheikh Anta Diop, who claimed to have identified a pan-African protolanguage and to have proven that ancient Egyptians were, indeed, black Africans.”
The twentieth century saw the rise of the Afrocentric genre into such a scientifically established academic field that the entire concept of UNESCO History Project was developed out of it.
By that time extraordinarily talented scientists like Professor Cheikh Anta Diop and Professor J.B. Danquah have already joined the rank of those who were using science to prove to the world that the greatest civilizations ever established by mankind were Black, African and Negroid.
Molefi Kete Asante wrote that, “Led by the Pharaoh of African History, Cheikh Anta Diop, a new cadre of scholars has emerged to challenge all of the lies that were told about Africa and about Africans. They are the ones who, as the poet Haki Madhubuti says, walk toward fear, not away from it. They are the real standards for courage and commitment.”
The Wikipedia free online encyclopedia also noted that “Diop also drew from the ideas of George M. James, a follower of black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey, who emphasized the importance of Ethiopia as a great, black civilization, and who argued that black peoples should develop pride in African history.”
Molefi Kete Asante wrote: “At a major 1974 conference sponsored by UNESCO on the “Peopling of Egypt” in Cairo, two blacks, Diop and Theophile Obenga, walked toward fear and when they had finished presenting their papers they had shattered all of the lies that were told about Africans. Using science, linguistics, anthropology, and history, these two intellectual giants demonstrated that the ancient Egyptians were black They used a melanin test on the skin of a mummy, art from the walls of tombs, correspondences to other African languages, and the testimonies of the ancients.”
By the mid-twentieth century it was evident to all and sundry that Africa was once the greatest power in the world. Clair Drake observed that, “The reexamination of Egyptology from a black perspective, initiated by the Afro-American scholar Dr. W.E.B. DuBois in 1915, in several chapters of his book ‘The Negro,’ eventually became a Pan-African enterprise that reached its culmination in a book-length publication — The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality — by Dr. Cheikh Anta Diop, a West African scholar, almost sixty years later.”
In the latter half of the twentieth century Afrocentrism and Pan-Africanism has, interestingly enough, grown into international or global movements championed not only Black African Negroes anymore but also by all those peoples from other parts of the world who discovered the truth to the effect that the entire world originated from the Black African Negroes.
In the case of the Afrocentrism and an-Africanism that has become the norm in the Indian subcontinent since the latter half of the twentieth century Horen Tudu, an American citizen of Bangladeshi roots, wrote “The early stages of Pan-Africanism in the western hemisphere focused on the principles and rhetoric of the great Jamaican born leader, Marcus Garvey. In recent times, global Negroland movements have sprouted all over the Indian Sub-Continent and are undergoing exponential growth in support. These movements comprise of all constituents of the Asiatic black race (Sudroids), from the Santhal insurgents of Bangladesh, to the tribal Gond militants of Madhya Pradesh and the Dalit Panthers of Bombay, Chennai, and Kerala. Furthermore, it must be made abundantly clear that these populations are by no means marginal, it totals over 350 million people, exceeding the combined populations of several western European countries.
“Apparently, the foundation and direct inspiration for these political and social movements come from the literature of great African-American intellectuals such as Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, Frederick Douglass and many others.”
AFRICA IN THE FUTURE
“Be as proud of your race today as our fathers were in days of yore. We have beautiful history, and we shall create another in the future that will astonish the world.” – Marcus Garvey
The conviction in the minds of all Afrocentric intellectuals today is that since Africa once ruled the world in the past, there is no doubt that Africa will once again rule the world in the future.
Marcus Garvey oratorically said it this way: “The world today is indebted to us for the benefits of civilization. They stole our arts and sciences from Africa. Then why should we be ashamed of ourselves? Their MODERN IMPROVEMENTS are but DUPLICATES of a grander civilization that we reflected thousands of years ago, without the advantage of what is buried and still hidden, to be resurrected and reintroduced by the intelligence of our generation and our prosperity. Why should we be discouraged because somebody laughs at us today? Who to tell what tomorrow will bring forth? Did they not laugh at Moses, Christ and Mohammed? Was there not a Carthage, Greece and Rome? We see and have changes every day, so pray, work, be steadfast and be not dismayed.”
Marcus Garvey wasn’t just saying the impossible; he was talking about what is definitely going to happen in the future and the past.
Professor Manthia Diawara wrote that “Like the poets, he [Jean-Paul Sartre] sings the African’s closeness to nature; he speaks of the synthetic African versus the analytic European, the capacity of Black people to display emotion against the cold rationality of White people, and the African’s blameless role in modern history’s catalogue of genocide, fascism, and racism. For Sartre, the White worker is incapable of producing good poetry because he has been contaminated by his objective and technical surroundings. The Black man, on the other hand, is subjective and therefore authentic; his poetry is evangelical; the Black man, as Sartre puts it, ‘remains the great male of the earth, the world’s sperm’. The Negritude that Sartre describes here resembles that of Cheikh Anta Diop and Leopold Sedar Senghor, who believe that Black people live in a symbiotic relation with nature, unlike White people who dominate and destroy their environment.”
But the belief in the millenarian return of Africa as the future One World Civilization is more than just an intellectual belief; this same belief is found in the religious, economic, political and otherwise circles.
History, whether linear or cyclical, is palpably moving towards an African climax. The West is on the fall, the East is on the rise, but Africa is still there untapped and full of all the potential vigor that will make it succeed the future fall of the East.
The Religious Renaissance of Africa
“Sometimes, we tend to wonder whether history has given us the fullest facts and information we needed to know about Jesus Christ. Or, can we be tempted to question whether history is hiding facts and evidences about Jesus Christ from us, by not telling us the full story about him…, who was he?” – Dr. Etiese Abasika
Virtually all the religions and mythologies of the world are millennarian in outlook – they are all based on the eschatological belief that the world once witnessed a Golden Age that is going to be established again in the future.
Now then, a careful scrutiny of world scriptures and other forms of oral literatures will clearly show that all these religions and mythologies are actually referring to Africa as the Golden Age civilization that once rule the world in the past and that will once rule the world in the future.
Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Mithraism, and Hinduism, Greek Mythology, Egyptian mythology, among many others, believe in a central personality who was the head of the ancient African civilization that once ruled the world. This divine personality variously referred to as Jesus, Yesu, Isa, Zeus, Enoch, Mithra, or Krishna, is believed to have once ruled the world as a One World Emperor. It is believed in all these religions and mythologies that he is not dead and that he will return in the future to re-establish his One World Golden Age civilization.
In Islam, for instance, wherein this great world figure is known as Isa (Jesus), it is related that the end of History will be marked by the return of Isa to establish the Post-History Golden Age called as-Sa’a. The Islamic world believes that as-Sa’a is a paradisiacal Golden Age civilization that will reign on this very planet earth for innumerable millennia in the future.
Incidentally Islamic and Arabic literatures are replete with circumstantial evidences pointing to the fact that in ancient times Africa was actually known as as-Sa’a!
A contextual reading of the Islamic and Arabic literatures in effect implies that Africa was the past and future Golden as-Sa’a civilization that Muslims believed in.
For one, Africa was known as Ethiopia, Sheba, Saba, or Abyssinia in ancient times. But a philological dissection of these three ancient names readily shows that all of them are constructed around the radix ‘Sa’ which is what Islam and the Arabs refer to as ‘as-Sa’a’.
Ethiopia = Esopa = Esoba = Esaba = Isaba = Isa – ba.
Isa – ba = Saba = Sheba
Saba = Basa = Abasa = Habasha = Abyssinia.
This line of analysis can be further extended into Christianity wherein the belief that Jesus will return at the end of History to establish a Post-History Golden Age is a canonical dogma.
Incidentally the name Jesus is also a phonetic cognate of Isa or as-Sa’a which is the ancient name of Africa. John Gilchrist wrote that ‘Christian Arabs have always called Jesus Yasu after the Aramaic Yashua from which comes the Greek “Ieseous” and the English Jesus’.
In fact this World Emperor was given the name Yashua, which actually means ‘The African’, because, according to the synoptic gospels in the New Testament, he was brought up in Africa.
All these things are connected one to the other. Jesus was referred to as ‘Yashua’ (Ieseous or Isa) because he was after all ‘The African’ who shall return to establish the as-Sa’a or the ‘African Golden Age Civilization’ that shall rule the world of the future.
In Greek Mythology Zeus was in point of fact referred to as ‘Ethiop’ by the Greeks. ‘Ethiop’, of course, means ‘The African’. In fact it has been pointed out that the huge statue of Zeus built at Olympia as one of the Seven Wonders of the World was actually a colossal statue depicting a Black African Negro god. The name ‘Zeus’, we can all easily see, is merely a linguistic variant of Ieseous, Isa or Jesus.
Then, as a matter of fact, Krishna was known as the ‘Black One’ or ‘The African’. The name Krishna is readily disseverable into the compound ‘Kara- Sa-na’ with the phoneme ‘Sa’ or ‘Isa still dominating the compound at the very center.
The long and short of it is that both Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Greek Mythology, and many other religions and mythologies are based on the ancient belief that Jesus or Isa is the Black African Negro World Emperor who shall return to re-establish Africa as the ‘Golden Age World Civilization’ that shall rule the whole world in the future.
All Religions Originated from Africa
The reason why all these religions and mythologies believe that Africa under the reign of Jesus will rule the world again is simply because all these religions and mythologies originated from Africa. Yes, all the religions in the world today originated from Africa in ancient times.
Professor Ali Mazrui wrote “If monotheism was as a concept the most globalizing religious doctrine, the most influential monotheistic religions have been Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Africa played a part in the origins of all these three religions.
“All of them started with Semitic peoples. Did Semitic peoples originate in Africa or in Asia? Today Semitic languages are on both sides of the Red Sea. Amharic and Tigrinya are among ‘Black Semitic languages’
“Was Moses an Egyptian and therefore an African? Writers and thinkers like Sigmund Freud have argued that Moses was an Egyptian. A founding father of Judaism. Did the life of the baby Jesus find asylum in ancient Egypt when King Herod was after his blood: The Bible according to Matthew tells us so. (Mathew Chapter 2, Verses 13 to 23)
“Did the first Arabized Muslims find asylum in Ethiopia – a pre-Hijra Hijra?”
The Religious Fall of the West
On the other hand modern civilization, or Western civilization, is losing out on the religious front. While Africa is making a comeback on the global scene through a multifarious resurgence of its various ancient religions, the West is gradually being relegated to the backwoods of history by the virulent form of secularism that it has clung to since the days of the European Renaissance.
Professor Ali Mazrui stated that “The most powerful country by this time was the United States. Pax Americana mobilized three of globalization’s four engines: technology, economy, and empire. Although in the second half of the twentieth century this Pax Americana apparently did not seek to promote a particular religion, it did help to promote secularism and the ideology of the separation of church and state. On balance, the impact of Americanization probably has been harmful to religious values worldwide, whether intended or not. Americanized Hindu youth, Americanized Buddhist teenagers, or indeed Americanized Muslim youngsters in Accra or Mombassa are far less likely to be devout adherents of their faiths than their non-Americanized counterparts. The United States has been a secularizing force in Africa and elsewhere.”
The Renaissance Return of Africa
“The only protection against injustice in man is power…..physical, financial and scientific.” – Marcus Garvey
Though Africa is today the most economically underdeveloped continent in the world, this does not means that Africa will always remain so. Various political, economic and sociocultural forces are responsible for the economic backwardness of Africa today. But the world is changing and so also will these negative political forces that are hampering the development of Africa.
The Economic Renaissance of Africa
Kwame Nkrumah wrote “Something in the nature of an economic revolution is required. Our development has been held back for too long by the colonial-type economy. We need to reorganize entirely, so that each country can specialize in producing the goods and crops for which it is best suited… Few would argue against the need for economic planning on a national scale. How much stronger is the argument for continental planning. . . . In the process of obtaining economic unity there is bound to be much hard bargaining between the various States. Integration of different aspects of economic policy will proceed at different rates, and there may be disappointing delays and compromises to be worked out. But given the will to succeed, difficulties can be resolved.”
Dr. Motsoko Pheko complained that “Today these [European] forces have their Pan-Europeanism through their European Union, making them a powerful economic bloc. They are integrating socially and politically, and working for a borderless Europe.
“On the other hand, Africa is wallowing in the quagmire of underdevelopment, poverty, endless border wars, economic domination and the dictatorship of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
“This is because African leaders are dragging their feet on the implementation of Pan-Africanism and have made Africa a perpetual beggar of foreign ‘aid’.
“Some of these leaders have become agents of neo-liberalism and neo-colonialism, whose instrument is ‘globalisation’. Globalisation is just a new form of recolonising the African continent.”
The Political Renaissance of Africa
Politically Africa is an international power to be reckoned with, that is, even in this present world order that is dominated by the West. A retrospective investigation of modern history will show that Africa has been gradually gaining more and more international political power over the decades ever since most of the African countries got their Independence in the 1960s.
It was in the late 1940s that the French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre pointed out that the contributions of the Black African Negro in modern times is no more restricted to just the ethnic or cultural but now also included his emerging office as the politico-administrative saviour of the human race.
Professor Manthia Diawara explains: “Sartre, too, sees the ideal of the French revolution in Negritude: The black contribution to the evolution of Humanity is no longer savor, taste, rhythm, authenticity, a bouquet of primitive instincts; it is a dated enterprise, a long-suffering construction and also a future. Previously, the black man claimed his place in the sun in the name of ethnic qualities; now, he establishes his right to life on his mission; and this mission, like the proletariat’s, comes to him from his historical position: because he has suffered from capitalistic exploitation more than all the others, he has acquired a sense of revolt and a love of liberty more than all the others. And because he is the most oppressed, he necessarily pursues the liberation of all, when he works for his own deliverance.”
There is no any indication that the ongoing gradual ascent of Africa on the international political scene will be reversed or even diminished in whatever sense. What is obvious is that Africa will continue on its gradual rise to world political power throughout the length of this new twentieth century.
That in recent times the phrase ‘African Renaissance’ has become popular is a strong indication of growing awareness even among the laymen and the general public that Africa is on the rise.
Scholars would, however, caution against the use of the term ‘African Renaissance’ in imitation of the infamous ‘European Renaissance’ of old. Dr. Motsoko Pheko wrote that “In August a prominent Nigerian political scientist reminded participants at the fifth Pan-African Colloquium in Ghana of the historical context of the ‘European Renaissance’, from which the so-called ‘African renaissance’ is trying to borrow and transpose its rationale.
“He pointed out that the ‘European Renaissance’ was the foundation of slavery, colonialism and racism. Africa has nothing to gain from this decadence, which was responsible for the worst holocaust of the African people in memory.
“The inheritors of this inhuman ‘renaissance’ are still working hard to perpetuate the holocaust of the African people and the underdevelopment of Africa, which they inflicted through slavery, colonialism, apartheid and racism.”